Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Germi, Iran.

2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Germi, Iran.

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

4 Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

10.22044/rera.2021.10752.1054

Abstract

Given the decline of non-renewable energy sources, trying to find new technologies and ways to supply energy and reduce fuel consumption is one of the top priorities of the world. One of the new technologies is fuel cell technology, which has received very little attention in Iran so far, and there is a need to study this technology more and more carefully, especially in combination with renewable energy sources in order to help energy decision-makers. Therefore, in the present work, for the first time, a hybrid wind-solar-fuel cell system for residential use in Yazd, located in the hot and dry climate of Iran, has been simulated using HOMER software. The aim is to find an optimal economic system to supply 15 kWh of electricity per day and to assess the impact of uncertainties, sensitivity analysis was performed on the intensity of solar radiation and wind speed. The simulation results show that the most economical system consists of a fuel cell, is based on wind turbine and solar cell, and has a total NPC, LCOE and LCOH of $ 23,674, $ 0.824 per kilowatt-hour, and $ 254.4 per kilogram, respectively. Also, not using the battery will lead to a 33.6 percent increase in the cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated. For wind speeds of more than 8 meters per second, the results show that the optimal system with a fuel cell only includes wind turbines, and therefore increasing the intensity of solar radiation has no effect on the results.

Keywords

[1] Assad, M.E.H., Khosravi, A., Malekan, M., Rosen, M.A., and Nazari, M.A. (2021). Energy storage. In Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems, Academic Press: 205-219.

[2] Alayi, R., Kasaeian, A., and Atabi, F. (2019). Thermal analysis of parabolic through concentration photovoltaic/thermal system for use in buildings. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 38(6): 13220.

[3] Kasaeian, A., Shamel, A., and Alayi, R. (2015). Simulation and economic optimization of wind turbines and photovoltaic hybrid system with storage battery and hydrogen tank (case study: the city of Yazd). Journal of Current Research in Science, 3(5): 105.

[4] Cheng, L., Zhang, F., Li, S., Mao, J., Xu, H., Ju, W., and Li, M. (2020). Solar energy potential of urban buildings in 10 cities of China. Energy, 196, 117038. ‏

[5] Alayi, R., Sobhani, E., and Najafi, A. (2020). Analysis of environmental impacts on the characteristics of gas released from biomass. Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, 4(1): 1-14.  

[6] Ehyaei, M.A. and Assad, M.E.H. (2021). Energy and exergy analyses of wind turbines. In Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems, Academic Press: 195-203.

[7] Abidoye, L.K., Bani-Hani, E., El Haj Assad, M., AlShabi, M., Soudan, B., and Oriaje, A.T. (2020). Effects of environmental and turbine parameters on energy gains from wind farm system: Artificial neural network simulations. Wind Engineering, 44(2): 181-195.

[8] Alayi, R., Kumar, R., Seydnouri, S.R., Ahmadi, M.H., and Issakhov, A. (2020). Energy, environment, and economic analyses of a parabolic through concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. ‏ctaa086,

[9] AlShabi, M., Ghenai, C., Bettayeb, M., Ahmad, F.F., and Assad, M.E.H. (2020). Multi-group grey wolf optimizer (MG-GWO) for estimating photovoltaic solar cell model. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry: 1-16.

[10] Wang, Q. and Wang, L. (2020). Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: A non-linear panel data analysis. Energy, 207: 118200.

[11] Alayi, R. and Jahanbin, F. (2020). Generation Management Analysis of a Stand-alone Photovoltaic System with Battery. Renewable Energy Research and Application, 1(2), 205-209. ‏

[12] Wojuola, R.N. and Alant, B.P. (2019). Sustainable development and energy education in Nigeria. Renewable Energy, 139: 1366-1374.

[13] Alayi, R., Ahmadi, M.H., Visei, A.R., Sharma, S., and Najafi, A. (2020). Technical and environmental analysis of photovoltaic and solar water heater cogeneration system: a case study of Saveh City. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. ctaa077,

[14] Alayi, R. and Rouhi, H. (2020). Techno-economic analysis of electrical energy generation from urban waste in Hamadan, Iran. International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics, 15(3): 337-341.

[15] Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., and Khechekhouche, A. (2018). Feasibility Study of Solar Water Heaters in Algeria, a Review. Journal of Solar Energy Research, 3(2): 135-146.

[16] Alayi, R., Kasaeian, A., and Atabi, F. (2020). Optical modeling and optimization of parabolic through concentration photovoltaic/thermal system. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 39(2): e13303.

[17] Alayi, R., Khan, M.R.B., and Mohmammadi, M.S.G. (2020). Feasibility study of grid-connected PV system for peak demand reduction of a residential building in Tehran, Iran. Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, 7(4), pp. 563-567.

[18] Mustafayev, R.I., Hasanova, L.H., and Musaev, M.M. (2018). Using regulated electrical machines in small hydropower plants operating in a power network. Russian Electrical Engineering, 89(5): 322-327.

[19] Maatallah, T., Ghodhbane, N., and Nasrallah, S.B. (2016). Assessment of viability for hybrid energy system (PV/wind/diesel) with storage in the northernmost city in Africa, Bizerte, Tunisia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59: 1639-1652.

[20] Vasel, A., Iakovidis, F. (2017). The effect of wind direction on the performance of solar PV plants. Energy Conversion and Management, 153: 455-461.

[21] Yu, H., Zhang, C., Deng, Z., Bian, H., Sun, C., and Jia, C. (2018). Economic optimization for configuration and sizing of micro-integrated energy systems. Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, 6(2): 330-341.

[22] Alayi, R. and Velayti, J. (2021). Modeling/Optimization and Effect of Environmental Variables on Energy Production Based on PV/Wind Turbine Hybrid System. Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Elektro Komputer dan Informatika (JITEKI), 7(1), 101-107.

[23] Alayi, R., Jahangeri, M., and Monfared, H. (2020). Optimal location of electrical generation from urban solid waste for biomass power plants. Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, 4(2), 44-51. ‏

[24] Al-Masri, H.M. and Ehsani, M. (2015). Feasibility investigation of a hybrid on-grid wind photovoltaic retrofitting system. IEEE Transactions on Industry applications, 52(3): 1979-1988.

[25] Al-Janahi, S.A., Ellabban, O., and Al-Ghamdi, S.G. (2020). Techno economic feasibility study of grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaic system for clean electrification: A case study of Doha metro. Energy Reports, 6: 407-414. ‏

[26] Al-Sharafi, A., Sahin, A.Z., Ayar, T., and Yilbas, B.S. (2017). Techno-economic analysis and optimization of solar and wind energy systems for power generation and hydrogen production in Saudi Arabia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69: 33-49.

[27] Rezk, H., Sayed, E.T., Al-Dhaifallah, M., Obaid, M., Abou Hashema, M., Abdelkareem, M.A., and Olabi, A.G. (2019). Fuel cell as an effective energy storage in reverse osmosis desalination plant powered by photovoltaic system. Energy, 175: 423-433.

[28] Li, C. (2021). Technical and economic potential evaluation of an off-grid hybrid wind-fuel cell-battery energy system in Xining, China. International Journal of Green Energy, 18(3): 258-270.

[29] Samy, M.M., Elkhouly, H.I., and Barakat, S. (2020). Multi‐objective optimization of hybrid renewable energy system based on biomass and fuel cells. International Journal of Energy Research, 2020: 1-17.

[30] Rezk, H., Alghassab, M., and Ziedan, H.A. (2020). An optimal sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV-fuel cell-battery to desalinate seawater at Saudi NEOM city. Processes, 8(4): 382.

[31] Rad, M.A.V., Ghasempour, R., Rahdan, P., Mousavi, S., and Arastounia, M. (2020). Techno-economic analysis of a hybrid power system based on the cost-effective hydrogen production method for rural electrification, a case study in Iran. Energy, 190: 116421.

 

[32] Naderipour, A., Abdul-Malek, Z., Nowdeh, S.A., Kamyab, H., Ramtin, A.R., Shahrokhi, S., and Klemeš, J.J. (2021). Comparative evaluation of hybrid photovoltaic, wind, tidal, and fuel cell clean system design for different regions with remote application considering cost. Journal of Cleaner Production, 283: 124207.

[33] Turkdogan, S. (2021). Design and optimization of a solely renewable-based hybrid energy system for residential electrical load and fuel cell electric vehicle. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 24(2): 397-404.

[34] Jahangiri, M., Mostafaeipour, A., Rahman Habib, H.U., Saghaei, H., and Waqar, A. (2021). Effect of Emission Penalty and Annual Interest Rate on Cogeneration of Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen in Karachi: 3E Assessment and Sensitivity Analysis. Journal of Engineering, 2021: 6679358.

[35] Alayi, R., Kasaeian, A., Najafi, A., and Jamali, E. (2020), "Optimization and evaluation of a wind, solar, and fuel cell hybrid system in supplying electricity to a remote district in national grid", International Journal of Energy Sector Management, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 408-418.

[36] Jahangiri, M., Khosravi, A., Raiesi, H.A., and Mostafaeipour, A. (2017). Analysis of standalone PV-based hybrid systems for power generation in rural area. In International Conference on Fundamental Research in Electrical Engineering (ICEEC-2017), Tehran, Iran: 1-0.

[37] Mostafaeipour, A., Rezaei, M., Jahangiri, M., and Qolipour, M. (2020). Feasibility analysis of a new tree-shaped wind turbine for urban application: A case study. Energy and Environment, 31(7): 1230-1256.

[38] Abdali, T., Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., and Sayadi, F. (2019). Techno-Econo-Environmental study on the use of domestic-scale wind turbines in Iran. Energy Equipment and Systems, 7(4): 317-338.

[39] Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., and Rahimi Ariae, A. (2019). Assessment of PV-based CHP system: Effect of heat recovery factor and fuel type. Journal of Energy Management and Technology: 3(1), 40-47.

[40] Jahangiri, M., Nematollahi, O., Haghani, A., Raiesi, H.A., and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. (2019). An optimization of energy cost of clean hybrid solar-wind power plants in Iran. International Journal of Green Energy, 16(15): 1422-1435.

[41] Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Heidarian, S., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., and Pomares, L.M. (2018). Electrification of a tourist village using hybrid renewable energy systems, Sarakhiyeh in Iran. Journal of Solar Energy Research, 3(3): 201-211.

[42] Jahangiri, M., Shamsabadi, A.A., Riahi, R., Raeiszadeh, F., and Dehkordi, P.F. (2020). Levelized Cost of Electricity for Wind-Solar Power Systems in Japan, a Review. Journal of Power Technologies, 100(3): 188-210.

[43] Jahangiri, M., Soulouknga, M.H., Bardei, F.K., Shamsabadi, A.A., Akinlabi, E.T., Sichilalu, S.M., and Mostafaeipour, A. (2019). Techno-econo-environmental optimal operation of grid-wind-solar electricity generation with hydrogen storage system for domestic scale, a case study in Chad. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(54): 28613-28628.

[44] Kalbasi, R., Jahangiri, M., Nariman, A., and Yari, M. (2019). Optimal Design and Parametric Assessment of Grid-Connected Solar Power Plants in Iran, a Review. Journal of Solar Energy Research, 4(2): 142-162.

[45] Moein, M., Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. (2018). Finding the minimum distance from the national electricity grid for the cost-effective use of diesel generator-based hybrid renewable systems in Iran. Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment, 5(1): 8-22.

[46] Mostafaeipour, A., Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Dehshiri, S.J.H., Dehshiri, S.S.H., Sedaghat, A., and Techato, K. (2020). Statistical evaluation of using the new generation of wind turbines in South Africa. Energy Reports, 6: 2816-2827.

[47] Ariae, A.R., Jahangiri, M., Fakhr, M.H., and Shamsabadi, A.A. (2019). Simulation of Biogas Utilization Effect on the Economic Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emission: A Case Study in Isfahan, Iran. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 8(2): 149-160.

[48] Mostafaeipour, A., Qolipour, M., Rezaei, M., Jahangiri, M., Goli, A., and Sedaghat, A. (2020). A novel integrated approach for ranking solar energy location planning: A case study. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Ahead-of-print.