Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.

2 School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Manchester, UK.

3 School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Manchester, UK

4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Montazeri, Khorasan Razavi Branch, Technical and Vocational University, Mashhad, Iran.



In this study, a solar driven alkaline electrolyzer producer of hydroxy gas is proposed which is integrated with photovoltaic panels with single-axis north-south solar tracking system. The main novelty of this work is providing transient analysis of integration of alkaline electrolyzer to the PV panels equipped with solar tracking system. Furthermore, the transient model of the alkaline electrolyzer is employed to calculate its operating temperature, hydroxy production rate and the other operational parameters at various hours of the day. The electrolyzer and PV panels with tracking system are modelled in EES software. It is assumed that the system is installed in Shahrood city, therefore, the geographical data this city is used for seasonal analysis. The effective area of electrolyzer electrodes and PV panels is also assumed to be fixed at 0.25m2 and 50m2, respectively, in this study. Based on the results, employment of solar tracking system resulted in significant increment of PV panels power absorption rate resulting in power increment up to 4.2kW in summer. On the other hand, the transient analysis of the proposed alkaline electrolyzer showed that the maximum operating temperature of which reaches 80oC at around 12 AM in the summer cause of achieving maximum electrical current peak in summer. Therefore, an efficient cooling system should be employed in summer for decrement of alkaline electrolyzer temperature. The proposed system is capable of producing 7.6m3/day, 10.4m3/day, 7.2m3/day and 4.1m3/day hydroxy gas in spring, summer, fall, and winter, consecutively.


[1] Naseri A, Fazlikhani M, Sadeghzadeh M, Naeimi A, Bidi M, and Tabatabaei SH. Thermodynamic and Exergy Analyses of a Novel Solar-Powered CO2 Transcritical Power Cycle with Recovery of Cryogenic LNG using Stirling Engines. Renewable Energy Research and Application. 2020;1(2):175-85.

[2] Alayi R and Jahanbin F. Generation Management Analysis of a Stand-alone Photovoltaic System with Battery. Renewable Energy Research and Application. 2020;1(2):205-9.

[3] Salek F, Zamen M, and Hosseini SV. Experimental study, energy assessment, and improvement of hydroxy generator coupled with a gasoline engine. Energy Reports. 2020;6:146-56.

[4] Thanompongchart P and Tippayawong N. Experimental investigation of biogas reforming in gliding arc plasma reactors. International Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2014;2014.

[5] Salek F, Zamen M, Hosseini SV, and Babaie M. Novel hybrid system of pulsed HHO generator/TEG waste heat recovery for CO reduction of a gasoline engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2020;45(43):23576-86.

[6] Zhao H, Nie T, Zhao H, Liu Y, Zhang J, Ye Q et al. Enhancement of Fe-C Micro-electrolysis in Water by Magnetic Field: Mechanism, Influential Factors and Application Effectiveness. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020:124643.

[7] Bos M, Kersten S, and Brilman D. Wind power to methanol: Renewable methanol production using electricity, electrolysis of water and CO2 air capture. Applied Energy. 2020;264:114672.

[8] Fang H, Haibin L, and Zengli Z. Advancements in development of chemical-looping combustion: a review. International Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2009;2009.

[9] Ghorbani B, Mehrpooya M, and Sadeghzadeh M. Process development of a solar-assisted multi-production plant: Power, cooling, and hydrogen. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2020;45(55):30056-79.

[10] Riyadi BS. Culture of Abuse of Power due to Conflict of Interest to Corruption for Too Long on the Management form Resources of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology. 2020;9:247-54.

[11] Woollacott J. A bridge too far? The role of natural gas electricity generation in the US climate policy. Energy Policy. 2020;147:111867.

[12] Ahmadi A, Jamali D, Ehyaei M, and Assad MEH. Energy, exergy, economic, and exergoenvironmental analyses of gas and air bottoming cycles for production of electricity and hydrogen with gas reformer. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020;259:120915.

[13] Ahmadi MH, Ghazvini M, Sadeghzadeh M, Alhuyi Nazari M, Kumar R, Naeimi A et al. Solar power technology for electricity generation: A critical review. Energy Science & Engineering. 2018;6(5):340-61.

[14] Ahmadi MH, Banihashem SA, Ghazvini M, and Sadeghzadeh M. Thermo-economic and exergy assessment and optimization of performance of a hydrogen production system by using geothermal energy. Energy and Environment. 2018;29(8):1373-92.

[15] Rashid MM, Al Mesfer MK, Naseem H, and Danish M. Hydrogen production by water electrolysis: a review of alkaline water electrolysis, PEM water electrolysis and high temperature water electrolysis. Int J Eng Adv Technol. 2015;4(3):2249-8958.

[16] Ezzahra Chakik F, Kaddami M, and Mikou M. Effects of operating parameters on hydrogen production by electrolysis of water. international journal of hydrogen energy. 2017;42(40):25550-7. 

[17] Ghazvini M, Sadeghzadeh M, Ahmadi MH, Moosavi S, and Pourfayaz F. Geothermal energy use in hydrogen production: A review. International Journal of Energy Research. 2019;43(14):7823-51.

[18] Khosravi A, Rodriguez ORS, Talebjedi B, Laukkanen T, Pabon JJG, and Assad MEH. New Correlations for Determination of Optimum Slope Angle of Solar Collectors. 2020.

[19] Menad CA, Gomri R, and Bouchahdane M. Data on safe hydrogen production from the solar photovoltaic solar panel through alkaline electrolyser under Algerian climate. Data in brief. 2018;21:1051-60.

[20] M. Sultan S, Tso CP, M. NEE. A Case Study on Effect of Inclination Angle on Performance of Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Collector in Forced Fluid Mode. Renewable Energy Research and Application. 2020;1(2):187-96.

[21] Touili S, Merrouni AA, El Hassouani Y, Amrani A-i, and Rachidi S. Analysis of the yield and production cost of large-scale electrolytic hydrogen from different solar technologies and under several Moroccan climate zones. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2020;45(51):26785-99.

[22] Beigzadeh M, Pourfayaz F, and Pourkiaei S. Modeling Heat and Power Generation for Green Buildings based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Renewable Fuels (Biogas). Renewable Energy Research and Application. 2020;1(1):55-63.

[23] Castrillo EDR, Santaella JRB, Assad MEH, Khosravi A, and Pabón JJG, editors. Modeling and validation of a comercial dry electrolytic cell for the production of oxyhydrogen. 2020 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET): IEEE.

[24] Ruuskanen V, Koponen J, Huoman K, Kosonen A, Niemelä M, and Ahola J. PEM water electrolyzer model for a power-hardware-in-loop simulator. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2017;42(16):10775-84.

[25] Guo Y, Li G, Zhou J, and Liu Y, editors. Comparison between hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis and hydrogen production by PEM electrolysis. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science; 2019: IOP Publishing.

[26] Keçebaş A, Kayfeci M,and  Bayat M. Electrochemical hydrogen generation.  Solar Hydrogen Production: Elsevier; 2019. p. 299-317.

[27] Navarro R, Guil R, and Fierro J. Introduction to hydrogen production. Compendium of Hydrogen Energy: Elsevier; 2015. p. 21-61.

[28] Dehghanimadvar M, Shirmohammadi R, Sadeghzadeh M, Aslani A, and Ghasempour R. Hydrogen production technologies: Attractiveness and future perspective. International Journal of Energy Research.

[29] Fereidooni M, Mostafaeipour A, Kalantar V, and Goudarzi H. A comprehensive evaluation of hydrogen production from photovoltaic power station. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018;82:415-23.

[30] Schnuelle C, Wassermann T, Fuhrlaender D, and Zondervan E. Dynamic hydrogen production from PV and wind direct electricity supply–Modeling and techno-economic assessment. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2020;45(55):29938-52.

[31] Bhattacharyya R, Misra A, and Sandeep K. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis: conceptual design and analysis. Energy Conversion and management. 2017;133:1-13.

[32] Ferrari M, Rivarolo M, and Massardo A. Hydrogen production system from photovoltaic panels: experimental characterization and size optimization. Energy Conversion and Management. 2016;116:194-202.

[33] Cilogulları M, Erden M, Karakilcik M, and Dincer I. Investigation of hydrogen production performance of a Photovoltaic and Thermal System. international journal of hydrogen energy. 2017;42(4):2547-52.

[34] Maatallah T, El Alimi S, and Nassrallah SB. Performance modeling and investigation of fixed, single and dual-axis tracking photovoltaic panel in Monastir city, Tunisia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2011;15(8):4053-66.

[35] Afanasyeva S, Bogdanov D, and Breyer C. Relevance of PV with single-axis tracking for energy scenarios. Solar Energy. 2018;173:173-91.

[36] Duffie JA, Beckman WA, and Blair N. Solar engineering of thermal processes, photovoltaics and wind: John Wiley & Sons; 2020.

[37] Zhang D and Allagui A. Fundamentals and performance of solar photovoltaic systems.  Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems: Elsevier; 2021. p. 117-29.

[38] Pourderogar H, Harasii H, Alayi R, Delbari SH, Sadeghzadeh M, and Javaherbakhsh AR. Modeling and Technical Analysis of Solar Tracking System to Find Optimal Angle for Maximum Power Generation using MOPSO Algorithm. Renewable Energy Research and Application. 2020;1(2):211-22.

[39] Olukan TA and Emziane M. A comparative analysis of PV module temperature models. Energy Procedia. 2014;62(2):694-703.

[40] Fesharaki VJ, Dehghani M, Fesharaki JJ, and Tavasoli H, editors. Effect of temperature on photovoltaic cell efficiency. Proceedings of the 1stInternational Conference on Emerging Trends in Energy Conservation–ETEC, Tehran, Iran; 2011.

[41] Ulleberg Ø. Modeling of advanced alkaline electrolyzers: a system simulation approach. International journal of hydrogen energy. 2003;28(1):21-33.

[42] Tijani AS, Yusup NAB, Rahim AA. Mathematical modelling and simulation analysis of advanced alkaline electrolyzer system for hydrogen production. Procedia Technology. 2014;15:798-806.