Document Type : Original Article


Department of Physics, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero Kebbi State, Nigeria..



Traditional cooking methods using fuel woods can pose very serious challenges of local and regional air pollution and land degradation. These methods are inefficient, unsustainable and have serious implications to the environment. To overcome these challenges, a novel four reflectors solar baking oven has been designed and tested for application in rural areas. The solar baking oven consists of four reflectors made from plane mirrors which reflect the Sun’s rays to the absorber plate placed at the baking chamber. The four reflectors intensify the incoming solar radiation into the baking chamber and increase the thermal properties and efficiency of the oven thereby resulting in shorter cooking time. The result obtained from the study showed that the oven can attain high temperature values. The temperature values are higher when the oven is loaded compared to when the oven is unloaded. When the oven is unloaded, the highest temperature attained by the four reflector solar baking oven is 128.6oC at 13:00 pm, as compared to 133oC at 13:00 pm, when the oven is loaded.


Main Subjects

  1. [1] Kalogirou, S. (2003), “The potential of solar industrial process heat applications’, Applied Energy. Vol. 76, 337–361.


    [2] Erdem, C. and Pinar, M. C. “A (2013), comprehensive review on solar cookers” Applied Energy. Vol. 102, 1399-142.


    [3] Toonen, H.M. (2009), Adapting to an  innovation: solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (BurkinaFaso). Phys Chem Earth 34: p. 65–71.


    [4]. Gado A. and Muthukumar M. (2017) ”Solar Energy for Electricity Generation-A Comparative Study of Three States in India”. Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Large-Scale Grid  Integration of Renewable Energy in India. 6-8 September New Delhi.


    [5] Yamikani K., Mlatho, J.S.P, Kondwani C.C. M, Thesaurus C. N. (2022) Design Construction and Performance Evaluation of Box and Parabolic Solar cooker. international Journal of Innovative 

    Science and Research Technology, Volume 7, Issue 6, ISSN No. -2456-2165.


    [6] Navendu M. Abhishek A., Saurabh, P., Karunesh K., Amritanshu S., and Atul S. (2023) Box-type Solar Cookers: An Overview of Technological Advancement, Energy, Environmental, and Economic Benefits. Energies MDPI Pp 1-32,


    [7] WHO (2010) “Health in green economy: Household energy sector in developing countries    Public health and environment department.


    [8] ACCESI, (2014) “Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solution Initiative; an improved cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa”. In W. b. group (Ed.), Second Edition (Vol. A land scape report). 


    [9] Gwani M., and Abubkar G. A (2016) .Power Sector Challenges and Renewable Energy Potentials in Nigeria, International Journal of Engineering Research and Science & Technology, Vol. 5(1). 76-84. ISSN: 2319-5991.


    [10] Holladay, A., Solar Energy, Microsoft student 2008. Redmond WA ® Encarta @ 1993-2008, (2009) Microsoft Corporation.


    [11] Saxena, A., Varun, Pandey, S. P., and Srivastav, G., “A thermodynamic review on solar box type cookers” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15 (6), (August 2011), 3301-3318.


    [12] Khan, B., (2008). “Non-conventional energy resources. McGraw Hill Education’.


    [13] Kothari, D., Singal, K., and Ranjan, R., (2008) Renewable energy resources and emerging technologies. Prentice-Hall. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Limited, India. 


    [14] Mirdha, U. and Dhariwal, S. (2008). “Design optimization of solar cooker” Renewable Energy, Vol. 33.), 530–544.


    [15] Algifri, A., and Al-Towaie, H., (2001). "Efficient orientation impacts of box-type solar cooker on the cooker performance" Solar Energy, 70(2), 165–170.  


    [16]. Harmim, A., Belhamel, M., Boukar, M., and Amar, M. (2010). "Experimental Investigation of a box-type solar cooker  with a finned absorber plate". Energy, 35 (9), 3799–3802.


    [17] Shrestha, V. (1987). "Modification of the solar cooker" Solar and Wind Technology, 4(3), 305–311.


    [18] Singh, P, Isaiah, B., and Nagre, V. (2020). Solar Bakery oven: Energy Design Project, Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Mumbai, 400076, Pp 1-26.


    [19] Ugwu, J. U. Chinedu, K. O., Anietie F. Ogochukwu, N. L. (2021). Design and Fabrication of Solar Powered Baking Oven Journal of Innovation and Sustainability, 4, 10-15 ISSN online 0184-7937.


    [20]  Iwuoha A.U. and Ogunedo, M (2019)  Design and Construction of a Domestic Solar Cooker, Assian Institute of Research  Engineering and Technology Quaterly Reviews Vol. 2. No. 1, 24-37, ISSN 2622-9374.


    [21]. Xie S., Wang, H., Wu, Q., Yukang L., Zhang Y., Jin, J, and Pei, C. (2019). A Study on the thermal performance of solar oven based on phase-change heat storage. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, Vol. 37(5).


    [22]. Taha, I. S. and Eldighidy, S. M. (1980)  "Effects of off-south orientation on optimum conditions for maximum solar energy absorbed by flat-plate collector augmented by plane reflector" Solar Energy, 25(4), 373 - 379.


    [23] Mullick, S.C., T.C. Kandpal, and A.K. Saxena, (1987). Thermal test procedure for box-type solar cooker. Solar Energy, 39(4): p. 353 - 360.


    [24] Mullick, S.C., T.C. Kandpal, and K. Subodh, (1996). Testing of box-type solar cooker: second figure of merit F2 and its variation with load and number of pots. Solar Energy. 57(5): p. 409 - 413.


    [25] Iwuoha A.U. and Ogunedo, M,(2021) Performance evaluation and economic analysis of a domestic solar cooker Open Access Library Journal Vol. 8 e7263 Pp 1-15


    [26] Tibebu, S., and Hailu, A. (2021). Design, Construction, and Evaluation of the             performance of Dual axis sun tracker parabolic solar cooker and comparison of cooker, Hindawi Journal of Renewable Energy, Article ID 8944722, P. 1-10,


    [27] Khan, M.S., Abid, M., Amber K. P., Ali,

    1. M., Yan, M., and Javed, S. (2021). Numerical perforamnce investigation of

    parabolic dish solar-assisted congeneratio

    plant using different heat transfer fluids, International Journal of Photoenergy,  Article ID 5512679. 15 pages.


    [28] Chaudhary, R and Yadav A. (2020). Experimental investigation of solar cooking system based on evacuated tuve solar collector for the preparation of cncentrated sugarcane juice used jaggery making  Environemt, Development and Sustainabililty, Vol. 5 pp, 1-17.


    [29] Pejack E. (2003). Technology of Solar cooking. Self Published on internet. University of Pacific, 203.