Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

2 Babol Noshirvani University of Technology

3 Professor, Sea-Based Energy Research Group, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology

4 University of Twente, Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering


Regulating the operating temperature of photovoltaic (PV) systems is essential for their longevity. An efficient passive cooling method involves the incorporation of Phase Change Materials (PCMs). In this study, a novel nonlinear analytical solution is employed to investigate the melting and solidification processes within the PV-PCM system, which operates continuously for 24 hours each day. The analytical approach significantly reduces computational time to a few seconds compared to over three months required by CFD techniques. The transformation of the partial differential energy equation into a nonlinear ordinary differential energy equation facilitates precise observation of both melting and solidification processes of the PCM material. The analytical approach is further applied to assess the performance of the PV-PCM system during two typical summer days in 2020 and 2021. Additionally, the impact of PCM thickness on the PV-PCM system is examined as a variable input. Results indicate that increasing PCM thickness from 1 cm to 5 cm reduces the peak temperature of the PV module by approximately 7 . This temporal shift is significant, enabling the PV module to operate at cooler temperatures during peak solar intensity, resulting in higher power output. The analytical solution proves instrumental in determining the optimal PCM thickness for a PV-PCM system in any location within seconds. Findings reveal that a 5 cm PCM thickness leads to a 13% decrease in maximum temperature and a 3.4% increase in minimum electrical efficiency. The integration of thermal energy storage enhances the overall efficiency and performance of the PV system.


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